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Table 10. Mean (SD) CD-RISC 2-Item Summary Scores

Authors Scale Number Mean (SD) Location Comments
Nicholls et al (2006) 2 770 5.6 (2.6) USA Trauma survivors who contacted Anxiety Disorders Association of America
Vaishnavi et al (2008) 2 458 6.91(1.5) USA National random digit dial sample
Campbell-Sills et al (2008) 2 764 6.82 (1.33) USA Community sample random digit dial in Memphis
Davidson and Lee (2015) 2 106
134
6.7 (1.3)
6.2 (1.5)
USA National RDD trauma survivor sample. Those who forgave perpetrators of violent trauma vs those who did not.
Osofsy et al (2011) 2 452 6.87(2.04) USA Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill area residents
Eisenach et al (2014) 2 13 6.9(1.0) USA New anesthesiology residents
Davidson et al (2008) 2 329 4.53
4.56
International
International
PTSD before receiving drug
PTSD before receiving placebo
Irmansyah et al (2010) 2 1,466 4.67 Indonesia Tsunami survivors
Stevens et al (2010) 2 633 6.84 (3.82) Australia Ambulance officers
Draper et al (2014) 2 210 5.9 (2.0) Australia Geriatric psychiatry in- and outpatients

D’Emden et al (2017)

2

151

6.1(1.5)

Australia

Type 1 diabetes

Faria et al (2011) 2 421 6.50 (1.23) Portugal Community sample Lisbon  
Lim et al (2011) 2 190 5.76 Singapore Adolescents mean age 12.8 (range 12-16)
Vinaccia and Quiceno (2011) 2 40 6.8 (1.8) Colombia COPD
Markovitz et al (2014) 2   254
101
110
5.6 (1.4)
6.2 (1.2)
5.9 (1.5)
Netherlands
Belgium
Belgium
Dutch students
Breast cancer patients
Control women
Lu et al (2016) 2 218 6.46 (1.72) Taiwan Student athletes
Ni et al (2015) 2 10,997 5.03 (1.37) China Hong Kong general population

Jeong et al (2015)

2

222

 

6.0 (1.2)
5.1 (1.5)
4.4 (1.5)

Korea

Firefighters and rescue workers
Controls
PTSD alone
PTSD plus other disorder
MDD

Rapacciuolo et al (2016)

2

571

5.87(1.7)

Italy

Older community sample in Naples

Lewis et al (2017)

2

697

5.8(1.7)

England

Subthreshold depression primary care



Table 11a. Changes in CD-RISC 25 Associated with Intervention or Treatment

First author N Interventions Pre and post scores % change ES *or p value Sample Country
Davidson (2005) 92 Antidepressants, CBT 56.0          67.6 21 ES = 0.72 PTSD USA
Davidson (2006) 224 Venlafaxine
Placebo
55.2          69.0
53.4         63.2
25
17
ES = 0.35 Ven vs. Pbo PTSD USA
Clauss-Ehlers (2007) 95 Stress management   73.1          76.2 4 ES = 0.21 College freshmen USA
Dodding (2008) 20 Group treatment
Control
39.0         53.9
62.8         64.8
38
3
P<0.005 Depressed and healthy control groups USA
Steinhardt (2008) 64 Stress management 67.7        75.3
70.6        70.6
11 P<0.01 College students USA  
Steinhardt (2009) 16 Diabetic management counseling 83.2        84.1 1 ES = 0.10 Diabetics USA
Lavretsky (2010) 40 Escitalopram
Placebo
60.2        76.2
66.6        68.4
27
3
ES = 0.47 Esc vs. Pbo Depression USA
Vetter (2010) 94 Post-trauma counseling 70.1        73.9 5 ES = 0.29 Children who survived Beslan terrorist attack Russia
White et al (2010) 42 Spinal cord injury rehabilitation 82.2 
81.9 
82.6
None NS Treatment  not specific to resilience USA
Jafari (2010) 25 Lifestyle training vs. Waitlist control 56.3       69.1
52.9       53.8
23
2
P<0.001 Males with alcohol and drug misuse Iran
Lavretsky (2010 and 2011) 37 Tai Chi
Control
60.5       71.5
56.9       65.5
18
15
P<0.05 Late life depression USA  
Sood (2011) 40 Stress management Waitlist 69.6       79.4
68.0       67.2  
14
0
ES = 1.16 MD employees USA  
Thabet (2011) 99 Community treatment 81.9       84.4 3 NS Women abuse survivors Gaza    
Loprinzi (2011) 20 Stress management Waitlist 73.6       81.1 78.2       82.1 10 5 P<0.05 Breast cancer survivors USA
Stephens (2012) 61 Resilience training vs. Control 75.2      78.0
74.5      75.7
4
2
P<0.05 Nursing students Australia
Sharma (2012) 33 Stress management 73.4      81.8 11 P<0.001 Medical center employees USA
Rogchanchi (2012) 24 Rational emotive therapy vs. Waitlist 56.6       72.7
57.2       59.1
28
4
P<0.001 Student counseling sample Iran
Naylor (2012) 12 Paroxetine
Placebo
73.8        74.6
80.1        79.2
1
0
NS OEF/OIF veterans with sub-threshold PTSD USA
Yu (2013b) 54 Resilience counseling 50.7        59.4 17 ES = 0.51 Village residents HIV + and HIV - China
Chen et al (2014) 32 CBT
Support
No treatment control
51.5      70.8
49.3      70.1
52.7      53.1
36
43
1
Not given Adolescent Sichuan earthquake survivors who lost a parent China

Peng et al (2014)

30
30

Penn Resil Pgm
Control

Penn Resil Pgm
Control

58.5      69.3
59.0      58.3

87.0      87.1
86.5      85.9

18
0

0
0

P<0.01
NS

NS
NS

Medical students low resil
Med students hi resil

China

Krystal et al (2014) 20 Tiagabine 62.0     70.4 14 ES = 0.40 PTSD with sleep problems USA
Sood et al (2014) 26 Stress mgt and resil training (SMART) 70.0     73.0
4 P < 0.05 within group MD Radiologists USA
Gowenlock (2014) 24 Meditation 75.8    80.8   84.4 11 P < 0.001 within group Military personnel at Combat Support Hospital USA
Yu et al (2014) 183 Resilience counseling
Information
Control
58.2    62.6
57.7    56.3
59.3    59.1
7
0
0
ES = 0.17 Refugees with adjustment difficulties China
Hoseiny et al (2015) 60 Methadone maintenance (MM)
MM with CBT
38.1     40.1
37.0     64.4
5
73
P < 0.05 Opiate dependent subjects Iran
Guest et al (2015) 88 CBT
Control
74.1     71.2
77.5     75.4
Reduction in score Spinal cord injury Australia

Rogers (2016)

43

Single 90 minute educational intervention workshop

77.3        74.1

Decrease in score

P = ns
ES=  -0.33

Healthcare professional students

South Africa



Table 11b. Changes in CD-RISC 10 and CD-RISC 2 Associated with an Intervention

First author N Interventions Pre and post % change ES or p value Sample Country
Davidson (2008) 224 Venlafaxine vs. placebo 20.5      27.0
19.9      24.2
32 0.34 PTSD USA
Davidson (2008) 224 Venlafaxine vs. placebo 4.61      5.68
4.52      5.15
23 0.32 PTSD USA
Vaishnavi (2007) 20 Mirtazapine vs. placebo Not given Not given 0.46 PTSD USA
Christensen (2011) 41 Rehabilitation 31.4      32.8 4 Zero Traumatic injury USA
DeManincor et al (2016) 47
54
Yoga
Waitlist
5.13      5.79
5.11      5.07
13% ES = 0.49 Depressed or anxious USA
Leventhal et al (2015) 2308 School-based
Resilience course
20.8 25.7
22.2 23.5
24
6
P<0.001 Rural schoolgirls India
Tan et al (2015) 64 Resource Enhancement and Activation Program vs Control 26.3      28.1
26.1      25.5
7
0
P=0.07 Older community residents Singapore
Notario-Pacheco (2014) 208 Treatment as usual Results divided into non responder (NR) and responder (R) groups 11%↓
10%↑
0.00  NR
0.36  R
Fibromyalgia Spain

Moffett & Bartram (2017)

105

Teaching module

27 (IQ 25-30)  pre
29 (IQ 26-32) post

7%

ES = 0.28
P<0.001

First year veterinary students

England

Lewis et al (2017)

339
358

Collab care
Usual care

5.8        6.2
5.8        5.7

7%

P<0.05

Subthreshold depression in primary care practice

England