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Table 6a. Mean (SD) CD-RISC 25-Item Scores in Groups with Medical Problems

Authors Scale Number Mean (SD) Location Diagnostic group
Connor et al (2003) 25 139 71.8 (18.4) USA Primary care patients
Sexton et al  (2009) 25 40 68.1 (14.3) USA Women with infertility
Steinhardt et al (2009) 25 16 83.1 (8.5) USA Patients with diabetes
White et al (2010) 25 42 82.2 (9.4) USA Spinal cord injury
Loprinzi et al (2011) 25 12
8
73.6(10.1)
78.2(10.5)
USA Breast cancer survivors in controlled trial
McCauley et al (2013) 25 46
29
81.1(21.1)
82.5(16.7)
USA Mild TBI
Orthopedic non-head injuries
Graham et al (2013) 25 41
26
60.6(24.3)
77.7(18.8)
USA OIF/OEF Veterans with TBI
Controls without TBI
Senders et al (2014) 25 117 73.4 (15.8) USA Multiple sclerosis
Cohen et al (2014) 25 14
42
93 (82-93)
87 (76-95)
USA Pre lung transplant
Post lung transplant
Sexton et al (2015) 25 214 76.6(13.6) USA Postpartum women
Fernandez et al (2015) 25 120 72.8(16.0) USA End stage liver disease - transplant candidates
Kreutzer et al (2016) 25 160 76.8(17.3) USA Mild TBI
Elliot et al (2016) 25 127 67.5(20.1)
70.8(19.6)
USA TBI +ve OEF/OIF Veterans
TBI –ve OIF/OEF Veterans
Hanks et al (2016) 25 67 75.9 (16.9) USA Mild TBI
Shin et al (2012) 25 24
12
89.9(15.8)
89.4(11.9)
Korea Spinal cord injury males
SCI females
Min et al (2013) 25 83
69
64.5(13.1)
77.1(12.6)
Korea Metastatic cancer with distress
Cancer without emotional distress
Singh et al (2014) 25 90 77.4 HC
55.5 RA
47.7 DEP
India Geriatric sample
RA < HC; RA > DEP
Huang et al (2010) 25 345 74.9 (14.8) Taiwan Diabetes
De Robert et al (2010) 25 37
71
77.9 (11.5)
68.8 (12.7)
Argentina Hypertension (HT)
Non-HT control
Low resilience with chronic stress increased odds for hypertension
O’Hanlon et al (2011) 25
25
27
27
72.0 (13.5)
70.1 (13.5)
UK Parents with cleft lip/palate
Control parents
West et al (2012) 25 31
36
64.9(15.4)
69.8(16.3)
Australia Chronic pain
Family controls
Guest et al (2016) 25 88 75.8 (14.8) Australia Spinal cord injury
Kohler & Loh (2016) 25 29 73.7 (12.9) Australia Geriatric orthopaedic fracture patients
Solano & Neto (2012) 25 132
100
103
76.3
77.3
75.4
Brazil Surgical OP pre-anesthesia workup
Chronic pain
Chronic pain group family controls
Solano et al (2016a) 25 20
24
74.0
88.5
Brazil Colorectal cancer with depression
Cancer without depression
Bodde et al (2013) 25 26 73.3(11.7) Netherlands Amputees with complex regional pain syndrome type 1.
He et al (2013) 25 410 67.8 (11.7) China Burn injury patients
Jiao et al 25 208 57.6 (15.9) China Methadone maintenance patients
Abolghasemi et al (2013) 25 40
40
82.1 (13.0)
59.3 (14.2)
Iran Fertility clinic male population – fertile
Fertility clinic – infertile males
Derakhshanrad et al (2014) 25 63 58.4 (15.5) Iran Stroke survivors
Markovitz et al (2015) 25
25
253
211
68.8 (14.6)
68.0 (11.9)
Belgium   Breast cancer patients
Healthy control women
Ristevska-Dimitrovska et al (2015a) 25 218 74.7 (17.0) Macedonia Breast cancer patients. (see table 4 also)
Dubey et al (2015) 25 68 74.4 (12.6) Switzerland Cancer patients
Spies and Seedat (2014) 25 95 81.7 South Africa Women with HIV
Roos et al (2014) 25 142 69.5 (17.2) South Africa Pregnant women at antenatal clinic


Table 6b. Mean (SD) CD-RISC 10-Item Scores in Groups with Medical Problems

Authors Scale Number Mean (SD) Location Diagnostic group
Wingo et al (2010) 10 792 34.0 (median) (0-40 range) USA Primary care/gynecology groups
Dodd (2010) 10 102 32.4(5.4) USA Inpatients in rehabilitation post injury
Wrenn et al (2011) 10 233
534
30 (12) median
35 (8) median
USA PTSD primary care patients
Non-PTSD primary care patients
Mascolini (2012) 10 42
20
27.0
31.0
USA HIV positive older subjects
HIV negative older subjects
Bradley et al (2013) 10 971 31.6(7.7) USA African-American OB/GYN outpatients
Lukow et al (2015) 10 96 22.0 (8.8) USA Mild to severe TBI
Rosenberg et al (2015) 10 1782 31.4 (6.6) USA Hematopoetic cell transplantation survivors
Dale et al (2014a) 10 138 28.3 (7.8) USA HIV +ve women
Dale et al (2014b) 10 85 29.3(7.8) USA HIV +ve women
Terrill et al (2016) 10 1862 28.0(7.1) USA Long term physical disabilities

Battalio et al (2016)

10

1574

29.0(7.0)

USA

Neurological disabilities – internet sample

Carlsen et al (2017)

10

73

30.4(5.5)

USA

Adolescents with IBD

Koelmel et al (2016)

10

163

26.8(6.2)

USA

Multiple sclerosis

Scali et al (2012) 10 238 27 (22-32 1,3Q) France Mammography subjects with and without breast cancer

Matzka et al (2016)

10

343

29.3(7.0)

Austria

Cancer patients

Kilic et al (2013) 10 60 29.5(7.2) Australia Spinal cord injury
Li et al (2016) 10 231 26.9(6.6) China Pregnant women
Hayter & Dorstyn (2013) 10 97 25.6(8.1) Australia Spina bifida
Black & Dorstyn (2013) 10 196 27.0(7.1) Australia Multiple sclerosis
Lyons et al (2016) 10 357 27.0 (7.7) Australia HIV+ve gay men
Markovitz et al (2014) 10
10
101
107
27.6 (5.9)
27.4 (6.8)  
Belgium
Belgium
Breast cancer patients
Control women
Notario-Pacheco et al (2014) 10 191 24.7(10.8) Spain Fibromyalgia
McGlone (2010) 10 27 29.3 (6.2) Canada Epilepsy

Poole et al (2016)

10

3836

30.3(7.1)

Canada

Primary care population



Table 6c. Mean (SD) CD-RISC 2-Item Scores in Groups with Medical Problems

Authors Scale Number Mean (SD) Location Diagnostic group
Vinaccia and Quiceno (2011) 2 40 6.8 (1.8) Colombia COPD

d.Emden et al (2017)

2

151

6.1(1,5)

Australia

Type 1 diabetes

Markovitz et al (2014) 2 101
110
6.2 (1.2)
5.9 (1.5)
Belgium
Belgium
Cancer patients
Control women


Table 7a. Mean (SD) CD-RISC 25-Item Scores in Non-Treatment Seeking Trauma Survivors

Authors Scale Number Mean (SD) Location Comments
Morey et al (2009) 25 20 83.4 (9.9) USA Combat trauma veterans without PTSD
Pietrzak et al (2009a)
Pietrzak et al (2009b)
25
25
272
233
73.8 (16.1)
75.5 (1.0 se)
USA
USA
National Guard soldiers from OIF/OEF
OIF/OEF combat veterans
McTighe (2009) 25 139 75.7 (10.9) USA Social workers in the vicinity of terrorist attacks in NYC 9/11/01
New et al (2009) 25 42 80.4 (9.5)
82.0 (17.7)
62.3 (23.1)
USA Healthy controls
Trauma exposed non-PTSD
PTSD
Johnson et al (2011) 25 225 71.6 (16.2) USA Active duty Marines
Anderson et al (2012a and b) 25 37 75.0 USA Women who survived intimate partner abuse
Nugent et al (2012) 25 2,915 80.8 (17.1) USA Traumatized low income African American sample from primary care and OB-GYN clinics
Elbogen et al (2012) 25 1,388 75.1 (18.3) USA Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans
Youssef et al (2013b) 25 178 76.7(15.7) USA Iraq/Afghanistan War veterans followed for three years
Daniels et al (2012) 25 70 68.9 (15.3) Canada Acute trauma survivors (mainly traffic accidents) seen in hospital ED
Goldstein et al (2013) 25 93 66.9 (16.1) Canada Young adults transitioning from welfare
Karairmak et al (2010) 25 246 70.1 (14.1) Turkey Earthquake survivors
Bensimon (2012) 25 500 67.7 (11.0) Israel College students exposed to trauma
Fu et al (2013) 25 2132 51.9 China Children ages 6-16 (mean 11.7) who survived earthquake


Table 7b. Mean (SD) CD-RISC 10-Item Scores in Non-treatment Seeking Trauma Survivors

Authors Scale N Mean (SD) Location Comments
Wang et al (2010) 10 341 26.8 (6.3) China Schoolteachers affected by earthquake
Hammermeister et al (2012) 10 351   28.1(0.88)   US   Stryker Battalion combat troops  


Table 7c. Mean (SD) CD-RISC 2-Item Scores in Non-treatment Seeking Trauma Survivors

Authors Scale N Mean (SD) Location Comments
Nicholls et al (2006) 2 770 5.6 (2.6) USA Trauma survivors who contacted Anxiety Disorders Association of America
Irmansyah et al (2010) 2 1,466 4.67 Indonesia Tsunami survivors
Osofsy et al (2011) 2 452 6.87(2.04) USA Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill area residents
Davidson & Lee (2015) 2 240
106
134
6.87(1.39)All
6.69(1.26) F
6.20(7.0) NF
USA Violent trauma survivors in US general population. Random digit dial sample. Forgivers (F) > Non-forgivers (NF).